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Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response


Surface water in or near settlements may come from household and water point wastewater, leaking toilets and sewers, rainwater or rising floodwater. The main health risks associated with surface water are contamination of water supplies and the living environment, damage to toilets and dwellings, vector breeding, and drowning. Rainwater and rising floodwaters can worsen the drainage situation in a settlement and further increase the risk of contamination. A proper drainage plan, addressing stormwater drainage through site planning and wastewater disposal using small-scale, on-site drainage, should be implemented to reduce potential health risks to the disaster-affected population. This section addresses smallscale drainage problems and activities. Large-scale drainage is generally determined by site selection and development  (see Shelter and settlement standard 2, guidance note 5)