Water supply standard 3: Water facilities
People have adequate facilities to collect, store and use sufficient quantities of water for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene, and to ensure that drinking water remains safe until it is consumed.
Key actions (to be read in conjunction with the guidance notes)
Provide the affected population with appropriate water collection and storage facilities (see guidance note 1 and Hygiene promotion standard 2).
Actively encourage the participation of all affected individuals and vulnerable people in siting and design of water points and in the construction of laundry and bathing facilities (see guidance note 2).
- Include, at water distribution points and community laundry facilities, private washing basins and laundry areas for women to wash and dry undergarments and sanitary cloths (see guidance note 2 and Hygiene promotion standard 2).
Key indicators (to be read in conjunction with the guidance notes)
Each household has at least two clean water collecting containers of 10–20 litres, one for storage and one for transportation (see guidance note 1 and Hygiene promotion standard 2, guidance note 1).
Water collection and storage containers have narrow necks and/or covers for buckets or other safe means of storage, for safe drawing and handling, and are demonstrably used (see guidance note 1).
There is at least one washing basin per 100 people and private laundering and bathing areas available for women. Enough water is made available for bathing and laundry (see guidance note 2).
Water at household level is free from contamination at all times (see guidance note 1).
All people are satisfied with the adequate facilities they have for water collection, storage, bathing, hand washing and laundry (see guidance note 2).
- Regular maintenance of the installed systems and facilities is ensured and users are involved in this where possible (see guidance note 3).
- Water collection and storage: People need vessels to collect water, to store it and to use it for drinking, cooking, washing and bathing. The vessels should be clean, hygienic, easy to carry and appropriate to local needs and habits in terms of size, shape and design. Children, persons with disabilities, older people and people living with HIV and AIDS may need smaller or specially designed water-carrying containers. The amount of storage capacity required depends on the size of the household and the consistency of water availability, e.g. approximately four litres per person would be appropriate for situations where there is a constant daily supply. Promotion and monitoring of safe collection, storage and drawing is an opportunity to discuss water contamination issues with vulnerable people, especially women and children.
- Communal washing and bathing facilities: People require spaces where they can bathe in privacy and with dignity. If this is not possible at the household level, separate central facilities for men and women will be needed. Where soap is not available, commonly used alternatives, such as ash, clean sand, soda or various plants suitable for washing and/or scrubbing, can be provided. Washing clothes, particularly children’s clothes, is an essential hygiene activity; cooking and eating utensils also need washing. The number, location, design, safety, appropriateness and convenience of facilities should be decided in consultation with the users, particularly women, adolescent girls and persons with disabilities. The location of facilities in central, accessible and well-lit areas with good visibility of the surrounding area can contribute to ensuring the safety of users.
- Maintenance of water systems: it is important that the affected population is made aware of and provided with all necessary means to maintain and sustain the systems provided.